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=nil; is an Ethereum layer-2 blockchain powered by zkSharding. The design of =nil; embodies three core qualities:

  • Horizontal scalability. =nil; unlocks the power of many machines by partitioning state across shards with cross-shard communications being a built-in feature of the protocol.
  • Modularity. =nil; acts as an execution layer while using Ethereum for data availability and consensus.
  • Verifiable security. The entire =nil; network can be verified with a single zero-knowledge proof attesting to the correctness of all shards.

The design of =nil; transcends the typical monolithic vs. modular discourse as it emphasizes horizontal scalability above all else. =nil; scales out beyond the constraints of a single machine's processing power, by leveraging zkSharding, a new type of sharding architecture. In zkSharding, execution shards produce zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) verifying intra-shard state transitions while the state of the cluster is managed by a designated consensus shard. The consensus shard is responsible for synchronizing execution shards and producing a 'master' ZKP that is sent to Ethereum for global state verification.

=nil; offers an effective strategy for scaling Ethereum while avoiding the limitations typically associated with the modular approach such as state and liquidity fragmentation.

Structure of the documentation


Learn the basics of what =nil; is and how it works.

Getting started

Start working with =nil; and learn the essentials of its implementation.


Access the developer tools supplied with =nil;.

Core concepts

Familiarize yourself with the key components of the architecture of =nil;.


Read about the inner workings of the =nil; implementation and access advanced tutorials.



Learn more about how =nil; plans to resolve issues central to any blockchain.

WIP provisions

The materials in this section may describe features and components that are not yet part of =nil;.